Electron beam irradiation enhanced extraction and antioxidant activity of active compounds in green walnut husk

Green walnut husk (GWH) contains abundant active compounds and is valued as a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study aimed at assessing the impact of electron beam irradiation (EBI) pretreatment on the extraction yield and antioxidant activity of active compounds in GWH. The ultrasonic extraction of active substances was optimized by response surface method (RSM). Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction revealed physical structure changes in GWH powder.
After EBI pretreatment, the content of polyphenols, flavonoids, and triterpenes in GWH increased by 18.88%, 43.00%, and 11.08%, respectively. Irradiation doses up to 30 kGy, DPPH, OH, and ABTS radical scavenging activity and reducing power of the crude extract were enhanced by 9.56%, 15.62%, 15.60%, and 36.98%, respectively. This was significantly different (P < 0.05) than the non-irradiated GWH. Therefore, EBI is a new pretreatment technology with potential application in the extraction and utilization of GWH.

Recent Advances in the Green Synthesis of Heterocycles: From Building Blocks to Biologically Active Compounds

Recent advances in the environmentally benign synthesis of common heterocycles are described. This account features three main parts; the preparation of non-aromatic heterocycles, one-ring aromatic heterocycles and their condensed analogs. Due to the great variety of and high interest in these compounds, this work focuses on providing representative examples of the preparation of the target compounds.

Green and Healthier Alternatives to Chemical Additives as Cheese Preservative: Natural Antimicrobials in Active Nanopackaging/Coatings

The side effects and potential impacts on human health by traditional chemical additives as food preservatives (i.e., potassium and sodium salts) are the reasons why novel policies are encouraged by worldwide public health institutes. More natural alternatives with high antimicrobial efficacy to extend shelf life without impairing the cheese physicochemical and sensory quality are encouraged. This study is a comprehensive review of emerging preservative cheese methods, including natural antimicrobials (e.g., vegetable, animal, and protist kingdom origins) as a preservative to reduce microbial cheese contamination and to extend shelf life by several efforts such as manufacturing ingredients, the active ingredient for coating/packaging, and the combination of packaging materials or processing technologies.
Essential oils (EO) or plant extracts rich in phenolic and terpenes, combined with packaging conditions and non-thermal methods, generally showed a robust microbial inhibition and prolonged shelf life. However, it impaired the cheese sensory quality. Alternatives including EO, polysaccharides, polypeptides, and enzymes as active ingredients/nano-antimicrobials for an edible film of coating/nano-bio packaging showed a potent and broad-spectrum antimicrobial action during shelf life, preserving cheese quality parameters such as pH, texture, color, and flavor. Future opportunities were identified in order to investigate the toxicological effects of the discussed natural antimicrobials’ potential as cheese preservatives.

Green-based active packaging: Opportunities beyond COVID-19, food applications, and perspectives in circular economy-A brief review

  • The development of biodegradable packaging, based on agro-industrial plant products and by-products, can transform waste into products with high added value and reduce the use of conventional nonrenewable packaging. Green-based active packaging has a variety of compounds such as antimicrobials, antioxidants, aromatics, among others. These compounds interact with packaged products to improve food quality and safety and favor the migration of bioactive compounds from the polymeric matrix to food.
  • The interest in the potential hygienic-sanitary benefit of these packages has been intensified during the COVID-19 pandemic, which made the population more aware of the relevant role of packaging for protection and conservation of food. It is estimated that the pandemic scenario expanded food packaging market due to shift in eating habits and an increase in online purchases. The triad health, sustainability, and circular economy is a trend in the development of packaging. It is necessary to minimize the consumption of natural resources, reduce the use of energy, avoid the generation of waste, and emphasize the creation of social and environmental values.
  • These ideas underpin the transition from the emphasis on the more subjective discourse to the emphasis on the more practical method of thinking about the logic of production and use of sustainable packaging. Presently, we briefly review some trends and economic issues related to biodegradable materials for food packaging; the development and application of bio-based active films; some opportunities beyond COVID-19 for food packaging segment; and perspectives in circular economy.

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The effect of Camellia sinensis (green tea) with its active compound EGCG on neuronal cell necroptosis in Rattus norvegicus middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model

Objectives: To determine the inhibition effect of epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and green tea extract on neuronal necroptosis based on necroptosis morphology.
Methods: In vivo study was performed on male Rattus norvegicus middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model divided into five groups, MCAO-control groups, EGCG 10 mg/kg BW/day, EGCG 20 mg/kg BW/day, EGCG 30 mg/kg BW/day, and green tea extract 30 mg/kg BW/day for 7 days treatment. MCAO model was made by modification method using Bulldog clamp. After 7 days of treatment, all R. norvegicus were sacrificed. After that, examination using Hematoxylin-Eosin stain was conducted to look at necroptosis morphology in each group.
Results: We found that there are significant differences between control group and the other three groups (EGCG 20 mg/kg BW/day, EGCG 30 mg/kg BW/day, and green tea extract (p<0.05). There is a significant correlation between the number of neuron cell necroptosis and both EGCG and green tea extract (p<0.05). The correlation is negative, which means both EGCG and green tea extract will decrease the number of neuron cell necroptosis. EGCG will decrease neuron cell necroptosis starting from the dose of 20 mg/kg BW/day. EGCG 30 mg/kg BW/day produces the best result compared to other doses.
Conclusions: Camellia sinensis (green tea) with its active compound EGCG decreases neuronal necroptosis morphology in MCAO models.

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