Characterization of the Aroma-Active Compounds in Banana ( Musa AAA Red green) and Their Contributions to the Enhancement of Sweetness Perception

“Hongmeiren” bananas are popular because of their red peel. Two extraction methods solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and headspace solid-phase microextraction, combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), were used to analyze the volatile components of “Hongmeiren” bananas. A total of 86 aroma compounds were identified by GC-MS, 62 of which were identified as the major aroma-active compounds with an odor activity value ≥ 1 or modified frequency ≥ 30%. Ethyl (E)-2-butenoate, 4-undecanone, and α-phellandrene were found in bananas for the first time.
Sensory experiments showed that eight sweet-associated odorants could significantly achieve the sweetness enhancement effect at 30 g/L sucrose solution by odor-induced changes in taste perception. These experiments suggest that selected odorants can achieve sugar reduction, but with consideration of the sugar concentration. The study of the sweetness enhancement effect of individual compounds provides a more direct theoretical support for sugar reduction in the food industry.

Active sites decoration on sewage sludge-red mud complex biochar for persulfate activation to degrade sulfanilamide

  • Active sites on catalyst surface play significant roles in oxidative species formation. The work focused on the regulation of main active sites on catalyst surface and oxidative species formation. Herein, sewage sludge (SS)-red mud (RM) complex biochar (SRCB) and N-functionalized SRCB (NSRCB) were served as activators of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) for sulfanilamide (SMX) degradation. Specially, NSRCB-1 showed excellent catalytic performance with 97.5% removal of SMX within 110 min.
  • Additionally, the effects of N incorporation on the reconstruction of N species, conversion of intrinsic Fe species and ketonic CO groups in SRCB were studied systematically. Both radical (hydroxyl radicals (OH), sulfate radicals (SO4) and superoxide radical (O2)) and non-radical (electron transfer and singlet oxygen (1O2)) pathways were confirmed by quenching experiments, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) testing and electrochemical measurements. Ketonic CO groups, pyridinic N and pyrrolic N were responsible for non-radical pathway in SMX degradation process.
  • Besides, Fe(II) modulated by N-doping was the main actives site for radicals generation. The contribution of active sites on catalyst surface to oxidative species formation provided fundamental basis for practical water treatment in PMS process.

Iron chelation therapy with deferiprone improves oxidative status and red blood cell quality and reduces redox-active iron in β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients

The oxidative status of twenty-three β-thalassemia/hemoglobin E patients was evaluated after administration of 75 mg/kg deferiprone (GPO-L-ONE®) divided into 3 doses daily for 12 months. Serum ferritin was significantly decreased; the median value at the initial and final assessments was 2842 and 1719 ng/mL, respectively. Progressive improvement with significant changes in antioxidant enzyme activity, including plasma paraoxonase (PON) and platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), and in antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) were observed at 3-6 months of treatment.
The levels of total GSH in red blood cells were significantly increased at the end of the study. Improved red blood cell membrane integrity was also demonstrated using the EPR spin labeling technique. Membrane fluidity at the surface and hydrophobic regions of the red blood cell membrane was significantly changed after 12 months of treatment. In addition, a significant increase in hemoglobin content was observed (6.6 ± 0.7 and 7.5 ± 1.3 g/dL at the initial assessment and at 6 months, respectively). Correlations were observed between hemoglobin content, membrane fluidity and antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells.
The antioxidant activity of deferiprone may partly be explained by progressive reduction of redox active iron that catalyzes free radical reactions, as demonstrated by the EPR spin trapping technique. In conclusion, iron chelation therapy with deferiprone notably improved the oxidative status in thalassemia, consequently reducing the risk of oxidative-related complications. Furthermore, the improvement in red blood cell quality may improve the anemia situation in patients.

Decoupling of Plant Growth and Accumulation of Biologically Active Compounds in Leaves, Roots, and Root Exudates of Hypericum perforatum L. by the Combination of Jasmonate and Far-Red Lighting

The plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) fine tunes the growth-defense dilemma by inhibiting plant growth and stimulating the accumulation of secondary compounds. We investigated the interactions between JA and phytochrome B signaling on growth and the accumulation of selected secondary metabolites in Hypericum perforatum L., a medically important plant, by spraying plants with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and by adding far-red (FR) lighting. MeJA inhibited plant growth, decreased fructose concentration, and enhanced the accumulation of most secondary metabolites.
FR enhanced plant growth and starch accumulation and did not decrease the accumulation of most secondary metabolites. MeJA and FR acted mostly independently with no observable interactions on plant growth or secondary metabolite levels. The accumulation of different compounds (e.g., hypericin, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and phenolic acid) in shoots, roots, and root exudates showed different responses to the two treatments. These findings indicate that the relationship between growth and secondary compound accumulation is specific and depends on the classes of compounds and/or their organ location. The combined application of MeJA and FR enhanced the accumulation of most secondary compounds without compromising plant growth. Thus, the negative correlations between biomass and the content of secondary compounds predicted by the growth-defense dilemma were overcome.

Red Active Caspase Staining Kit

K2052-100 ApexBio 100 assays 572 EUR

Red Active Caspase Staining Kit

K2052-25 ApexBio 25 assays 238 EUR

CaspGLOW Red Active Caspase Staining Kit

55R-1297 Fitzgerald 25 assays 296 EUR

Red Active Caspase-3 Staining Kit

K2053-100 ApexBio 100 assays 572 EUR

Red Active Caspase-3 Staining Kit

K2053-25 ApexBio 25 assays 238 EUR

Red Active Caspase-8 Staining Kit

K2054-100 ApexBio 100 assays 572 EUR

Red Active Caspase-8 Staining Kit

K2054-25 ApexBio 25 assays 238 EUR

Red Active Caspase-9 Staining Kit

K2055-100 ApexBio 100 assays 572 EUR

Red Active Caspase-9 Staining Kit

K2055-25 ApexBio 25 assays 238 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase Staining Kit

K190-100 Biovision 523 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase Staining Kit

K190-25 Biovision 240 EUR

CaspGLOW Red Active Caspase 3 Staining Kit

55R-1298 Fitzgerald 25 assays 296 EUR

CaspGLOW Red Active Caspase 8 Staining Kit

55R-1299 Fitzgerald 25 assays 296 EUR

CaspGLOW Red Active Caspase 9 Staining Kit

55R-1300 Fitzgerald 25 assays 296 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase-3 Staining Kit

K193-100 Biovision 533 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase-3 Staining Kit

K193-25 Biovision 240 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase-8 Staining Kit

K198-100 Biovision 523 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase-8 Staining Kit

K198-25 Biovision 240 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase-9 Staining Kit

K199-100 Biovision 517 EUR

CaspGLOW? Red Active Caspase-9 Staining Kit

K199-25 Biovision 240 EUR

RED antibody

22518-100ul SAB 100ul 390 EUR

Ruthenium Red

2490-100 Biovision 131 EUR

Ruthenium Red

2490-500 Biovision 370 EUR

Congo Red

2588-100 Biovision 120 EUR

Active head lifting from supine in infancy in the general population: Red flag or not?

Background: Previously it had been had reported that active head lifting from supine (AHLS) in high-risk infants was associated with lower cognitive scores in the second year. AHLS was generally accompanied by stereotyped leg movements.
Aims: To examine in a standardized way whether AHLS with or without stereotyped leg movements in the general population is associated with prenatal, perinatal, neonatal and socio-economic risk factors or with lower scores on concurrent infant tests.
Study design: Cross-sectional study SUBJECTS: 1700 infants aged 2-18 months representative of the Dutch population.
Outcome measures: Infant Motor Profile (IMP) and Standardized Infant NeuroDevelopmental Assessment (SINDA). Assessments were video-recorded and included at the youngest ages 3min of behaviour in supine. AHLS and the presence of stereotyped leg movements were recorded. Standardized information on early risk factors was available.
Results: AHLS occurred at 4-9 months (prevalence per months: 1-14%; highest prevalence at 6 months). It was not associated with early risk factors or scores on infant tests. When AHLS was accompanied by stereotyped leg movements it was associated with a higher prevalence of an IMP-variation score < P15 (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.472 [95%CI 1.017; 6.006]). Stereotyped leg movements irrespective of AHLS were associated with more unfavourable total IMP scores and IMP performance scores (B coefficients -3.212 [-4.065; -2.360], -2.521 [-3.783; -1.259]) and IMP variation and SINDA neurological scores (ORs 5.432 [3.409; 8.655], 3.098 [1.548; 6.202]).
Conclusions: The data suggest that AHLS is not a red flag. Rather its co-occurring stereotyped leg movements may signal less favourable neurodevelopment.

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