Peak protein from the mutant strain P.1, also known as the “Brazilian variant”. It is a full-length protein, which is active in its native trimeric form, which is stabilized in LMNG detergent.
Hepatitis C virus glycoprotein 1 (HCVgp1), also known as a polyprotein, is crucial for the induction of double-membrane vesicles, sites of amplification of HCV RNA. The amino terminal of the polyprotein contains the core of the structural proteins, the envelope protein 1 (E1) and E2. Proteolytic cleavage of the polyprotein results in the formation of 10 mature viral proteins that are necessary for viral replication and assembly.
All viruses undergo rapid mutations and adapt quickly to the countermeasures that the immune system creates against them. The SARS-CoV-2 of the COVID-19 pandemic is no exception here. Peak protein from the mutant strain P.1, also known as the “Brazil variant”. It is a full-length protein, which is active in its native trimeric form, which is stabilized in LMNG detergent.
Although most mutations in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) genome are expected to be deleterious and rapidly purging or relatively neutral, a small proportion will affect functional properties and may alter infectivity. , the severity of the disease or interactions with the host. immunity.
The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 was followed by a period of relative evolutionary stasis that lasted for approximately 11 months. However, since the end of 2020, the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 has been characterized by the appearance of sets of mutations, in the context of ‘worrying variants’, affecting the characteristics of the virus, including transmissibility and antigenicity, probably in response to immune changes. profile of the human population.
There is emerging evidence of a reduction in the neutralization of some SARS-CoV-2 variants by post-vaccination serum; however, a greater understanding of the correlates of protection is required to assess how this may affect the effectiveness of the vaccine. However, manufacturers are preparing platforms for a possible update of vaccine sequences, and it is essential that surveillance of genetic and antigenic changes in the global virus population is carried out in conjunction with experiments to elucidate the phenotypic impacts of mutations.
In this review, we summarize the literature on mutations in the peak protein of SARS-CoV-2, the primary antigen, focusing on their impacts on antigenicity and contextualizing them in protein structure, and discussing them in the context of frequencies of mutation observed in the world. sequence data sets.